By Stephen E. Robertson, Managing Partner, Higgins Benjamin, PLLC
Most of us get our perceptions of lawyers from TV, hairdressers, jilted relatives, domestic violence news accounts and other sensational but less than reliable sources. When we face an often emotionally charged breakup, we might think “I want the toughest, meanest junkyard dog litigator I can get.” In reality, there are no statistics that expensive, litigation-hungry lawyers get better results.
There are two ways to walk through a marital dissolution – by agreement and through litigation. Lawyers love to litigate. They love to win in court – losing not so much – but family law clients seldom win and lose. More often, neither side is pleased with the result after trial. Both are emotionally drained and both feel they have spent an inordinate amount of their marital estate for legal counsel. Sometimes, clients feel like they lose control of the process. They go to court; nothing happens, they return, another continuance and so on. Ask any District Court Judge and he or she will tell you the courts are overcrowded. It is ultimately the client’s choice whether he or she wants to travel the road to the courthouse or pursue settlement by agreement, but if you are facing an inevitable breakup of your marriage, you should consider alternatives to litigation.
The overwhelming majority of divorce related lawsuits settle prior to trial anyway. The State of North Carolina wants cases settled before trial as a matter of public policy. There are statutory requirements that all lawsuits go through mediation before they are scheduled for trial. Where children are concerned, mothers and fathers in Guilford, and several other counties, must attend a 4-hour educational program offered by the Children’s Home Society of North Carolina called “Parenting Under Two Roofs,” attend mediation orientation, and then attend mediation itself. These programs are provided at little or no cost, and lawyers do not attend the mediation. It is an opportunity for the parents to hammer out a parenting agreement with the aid of a well-trained, experienced mediator. Child support obligations are usually, but not always, determined by a mechanical application of a formula set out in the North Carolina Child Support Guidelines, so there is seldom a need for a child support trial.
The remaining issues, the only issues for a couple with no children, are splitting the assets and debts acquired during the marriage, and determining if one spouse or the other should receive alimony. If alimony is appropriate, then the amount and duration must be determined. These matters are also the subjects of mandatory mediation. Financial mediation, unlike child custody mediation however, is not paid for by the state and your lawyers will be heavily involved. Many family financial cases settle in mediation. While a mediated settlement is usually preferable to a trial, the settlement agreement is often hastily assembled at the end of a long day or two of negotiations. Why not use a more deliberative process where the spouses are engaged over time so they can give these all-important, life-changing decisions more than a day or two of intense consideration and negotiation?
There is a time-proven method for making both the child related and financial determinations known as Collaborative Family Law. Since its inception in 1991, more than 22,000 lawyers have been trained in Collaborative Law worldwide. In 2010, the International Association of Collaborative Professionals published survey results finding that 90% of cases settled while only 10% terminated prior to settlement of all issues.
It works because you and your spouse maintain control of your outcomes. You have the benefit of a respectful, creative and individualized process. Both of you can choose a lawyer trained in the process through the Triad Collaborative Family Law Practice Group (www.triadcollaborative.com)
Further, you can choose to involve a Divorce Coach, a Child Specialist to bring your children’s needs and voices to the table, and a neutral Financial Specialist to help you understand and resolve the financial components of your divorce. You resolve the issues through a series of face-to-face meetings, on your time schedule, and with your professional team.
The practice of family law gives lawyers the chance to be of service to clients at a critical time in their lives and in a very personal way. Collaborative Family Law practitioners offer a private, cost-effective, efficient, dignified process that allows clients and their families to have the best possible post-divorce relationships – without going to court.
If you would like to discuss an issue involving Family Law, Collaborative Family Law, Divorce, or Child Custody, contact Steve Robertson at (336) 273-1600 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
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By Jon Wall, Member, Higgins Benjamin, PLLC
Beverage Systems, LLC v. Associated Beverage Repair, LLC, 762 S.E.2d 316 (N.C. Ct. App. 2014) is headed to the North Carolina Supreme Court for review. The Court should reverse the Court of Appeals’ decision, as it represents a significant departure from our jurisprudence on noncompetition agreements (also called “noncompetes”).
Beverage Systems involved a non-compete provision in a sale-of-a-business context. Tangential to the sale of a business, the seller covenanted not to operate a competing business in the states of North and South Carolina. Evidence indicated that the seller and buyer, however, conducted operations in only a few counties in South Carolina and less than half of the counties in North Carolina. The agreement also provided that if the noncompetition territory was found to be overbroad, the court should re-write the agreement to make it enforceable. The trial court found the territory overbroad and refused to enforce it.
The Court of Appeals reversed and held that North Carolina’s “strict blue pencil rule” did not apply because the contract provision imbued the court with authority to re-write the territory. The strict blue pencil rule allows a court to strike through overbroad restrictions and enforce the remaining reasonable provisions, but it does not permit the court to rewrite provisions. The appellate court reversed and remanded to the trial court with instructions to “to revise the territorial area of the noncompete to [make it enforceable].” Judge Elmore dissented.
Because of the split decision, the case is now before the North Carolina Supreme Court, which should carefully consider all of the implications raised by the lower court’s decision. These include:
There is a misperception that noncompetition agreements are “good for business.” Many believe the opposite, as noncompetes serve to strangle the labor market and squelch innovation and entrepreneurship. Thus, much of Silicon Valley’s success is attributed to California’s ban on noncompetition agreements altogether. Likewise, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick is advocating for a ban on noncompetition agreements (while strengthening protections for trade secrets), hoping to spur more entrepreneurial growth. How will Research Triangle and the Triad’s nanotechnology and bio-sciences sectors fare in attracting new businesses if the Court of Appeals’ decision stands? See On Amir & Orly Lobel, Driving Performance: A Growth Theory of Noncompete Law, 16 Stanford Tech. L. Rev. No. 3, p. 833 at 846, 857-62, 865-66 (2013) (reviewing research outlining negative effects of noncompetition agreements on labor market, job creation, and the economy).
Permitting courts to rewrite contract provisions ignores long-held tenets of contract law. Foremost, a contract is to be a “meeting of the minds,” yet it is clear the rewritten provisions were not within the parties’ consciousness at the time the contract was entered. The court’s revisions constitute a “reformation” of the contract. Until now, there have been strict limitations on when a court may reform a contract, limited to those situations involving some type of fraud or mistake. As none of those circumstances are present here, the Court should not entertain any type of reformation.
Private parties cannot enlist our courts to make their agreements for them. Acknowledging, let alone enforcing, such provisions sets a bad precedent. In an analogous case, the court observed that “the parties have no right to grant or accept a power held only by the judiciary.” Ibele v. Tate, 594 S.E.2d 793, 795 (N.C. App. 2004) (consent order’s provision that agreement could be enforced using the court’s contempt powers would not be given effect, as it was not within private parties’ power to dictate the business or powers of the court). Courts should not become the parties’ scriveners when they fail to exercise reasonableness and restraint themselves.
Restraints on trade are illegal in North Carolina. Noncompetition agreements are partial restraints of trade, and as such there is a substantial body of case law reciting that “[c]ontracts restraining employment are looked upon with disfavor in modern law.” Kadis v. Britt, 224, N.C. 154, 160, 29 S.E.2d 543, 546 (1944). Are we to pay mere lip service to these tenets by creating special rules of enforcement for noncompetition agreements, ensuring their extra-contractual, universal enforcement?
While the agreement under review involved the sale of a business rather than a post-employment noncompete, the same principles have been applied in reviewing enforceability of both types of noncompetes. In the employment context, the courts’ post facto rewriting of noncompetes in order to enforce them is especially troubling because it encourages employers to draft overly broad and oppressive clauses. See, e.g., Tradesman, Int’l, Inc. v. Black, 724 F.3d 1004, 1018 (7th Cir. 2013)(employers have powerful incentive to draft oppressive clauses if court will rewrite them; in the few cases that go to court, the employer can retreat to reasonable position without suffering any penalty or disadvantage of its oppressive drafting). Moreover, for every case that gets heard in court, hundreds more go unchallenged as employees assume the clauses are enforceable and lack the resources to challenge them. This in terrorem effect was noted over 50 years ago. Harlan M. Blake, Employee Agreements Not To Compete, 73 Harv. L. Rev. 625, 682-83 (Feb. 1960). Thus, the Court of Appeals’ decision would be especially troubling if it were affirmed without unmistakable clarification that the new rule did not apply in the employment context.
Because the Court of Appeals’ decision disregards years of well-reasoned precedent and would be harmful to our State’s economic growth, the N.C. Supreme Court should reverse the decision.
If you would like to discuss an issue involving Noncompetition Agreements, contact Jon Wall at (336) 273-1600, ext. 134, or email@example.com.
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